Tetanus is an infection that has been known since antiquity. It is caused by the tetanus bacillus - Clostridium tetani. In particular, a major cause of infection is a toxin which is produced by such bacilli.
Wound infection is an acute condition for which the most typical are the convulsions of different muscle groups, which are frequently and with great force.
The toxin, which form the germs is neurotropic, that primarily affects the nervous tissue. He is considered one of the strongest existing toxins with botulinum (the one that causes botulism).
Organisms that cause tetanus form capsules (spores), which can survive for a long time, even decades in the soil on the floor in housing or manure.
What are the ways to infect a person?
Tetanus spores enter the body through broken skin and mucous membranes. Most often these are lacerations or puncture, injection with unsterile needles of drugs and wounds were formed in frostbite or skin burns.
Not to be ignored are infected with tetanus in criminal abortions, ie those that are made outside the hospital and questionable sterility. A related neonatal tetanus, which results in newborns to mothers giving birth outside use in this compartment.
The disease is not typical transmission from person to person, but susceptibility to tetanus is universal. Every year a large number of infected people, mortality is still high. For developed countries it is characteristic of the illness mostly elderly population over the age of 60-65. This is due to the fact that the immunity after immunization with a duration of about 10 years.
Tetanus toxin moves especially in the nerve endings and thus reaches the central nervous system (brain). But there is the opportunity to spread through blood.